Tuesday, December 31, 2019
OFFENDER PROFILING According to the article, offender profiling is a technique for identifying the personality and behavioral features of an offender based on an analysis of he/she committed. There are two types of offender profiling: inductive and deductive profiling. Inductive profiling technique uses an offender profiling from what is known about other offenders (criminals). Deductive profiling deals with the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s evidence relating to him/her. The aim of the research was to examine the utility of offender profiles. To evaluate if the offender profiles with an ambiguous profile will demystify the statements to make them well suited to a potential suspect. Offender profiles have been useful to prioritize suspects in ongoing investigations; however there have been criticisms on profiling. Based on Alison et al., stated that after the study, they generalized that both participants that received genuine and bogus suspects had no significant differences, this correspond well with Barnum- type effect. Therefore, using offender profiles as an investigative tool can be highly suspicious. The study proposed that, like the participants in the early Barnum studies, individuals might have similar results. The correlation between participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of generic personality sketches and officers potential reinterpretation, suggest that police will have a hard time to prioritize a particular suspects because the results come in an extremely large suspects pools that matchShow MoreRelatedThe Importance of Criminal Justice1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUse of Criminal Profiling Criminal Profiling is a method of identifying the perpetrator of a crime based on an analysis of the nature of the offense and the manner in which it was committed. It most notably can be traced back to work done in the later part of the last century, and possibly even earlier in a variety of forms. There has been a definite growth since this early work, with many individuals doing a great deal of both research and practical work in criminal profiling. The investigativeRead MoreEssay on Criminological Theories13456 Words Ã |Ã 54 Pagesworld or across a society. They attempt to answer why there are variations in group rates of crime. Other authors have used the terms Ã¢â¬Å"epidemiologyÃ¢â¬ or social structural theories. Micro. Micro theories of criminal behavior focus on a small group of offenders or on an individual crime. They attempt to answer why some individuals are more likely than others to commit crime. Other authors have used the terms Ã¢â¬Å"individual conductÃ¢â¬ or processual theories. Necessary Condition. This means that X must be presentRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pages0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication
Monday, December 23, 2019
Julius Caesar Multiple Choice Unit Test 1 Name_____________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE UNIT TEST 1 - Julius Caesar I. Matching/Identify _____ 1. Strato _____ 2. Lucilius _____ 3. Octavius _____ 4. Artemidorus _____ 5. Brutus _____ 6. Caesar _____ 7. Casca _____ 8. Calpurnia _____ 9. Mark Antony _____ 10. Portia _____ 11.Lepidus _____ 12. Decius _____ 13. Pindarus _____ 14. Cassius _____ 15. Soothsayer A. Captured by Antonys soldiers, mistaken for Brutus B. Persuades Caesar to attend Senate meeting C. First to stab Caesar D. convinces Brutus to join conspiracy with false letters E. Holds the sword for Brutus to kill himself F. Wife of Brutus G. The least important member of the 2nd triumvirate H. warns Caesar Ã¢â¬Å"Beware theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Brutus 19. How does Brutus die? A. Antony kills him in a fight. B. He kills himself with his sword. C. The ghost of Caesar frightened him to death. D. He is taken prisoner and one of the soldiers accidentally kills him. 20. In what year was Shakespeare born? b. 1564 c. 1599 a. 1613 21. What country was ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s birthplace? b. Scotland c. Ireland a. England d. 1584 d. Wales 22. Under which two monarchs did Shakespeare perform and write? a. Elizabeth, and John I b. Elizabeth, and Mary c. Henry VII 23. What are three types of plays Shakespeare wrote? c. history, mystery, comedy a. comedy, history, tragedy b. romance, tragedy, history d. comedy, tragedy, mystery 24. How many plays did Shakespeare write? a. over 200 b. 154 c. 37 or 38 25. In what year did Shakespeare die? a. 1616 b. 1599 c. 1564 d. 1569 d. King Lear d. no one knows for sure Julius Caesar Multiple Choice Unit Test 1 III. Quotations: Identify the speaker of the quotations. A = Brutus B = Soothsayer C = Cassius D = Caesar E = Antony 26. Beware the Ides of March.(1.2.18) 27. Ã¢â¬Å"Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste death but onceÃ¢â¬ (1.2.3233) 28. This was the noblest Roman of them all. (5.5.67) 29. Ã¢â¬Å"Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much. Such men are dangerous.Ã¢â¬ (1.2.195-196) 30. Ã¢â¬Å"Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed/ that he is grown so greatÃ¢â¬ (1.2.150) 31. Ã¢â¬Å"Cry Ã¢â¬ËHavoc!Ã¢â¬â¢ and let slip the dogs of warÃ¢â¬ (3.1.276) 32. Caesar,Show MoreRelatedGary Dessler Human Resource Management 14th Edition1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor read online: DOWNLOAD GARY DESSLER HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 14TH EDITION.PDF NOW Other ebooks PDF you can access on our library: Trigonometry Answers Online, Answers Nims 700, Answers In Hsa Algebra 2014 Answer Key, American Red Cross First A Test Answers, Grade 11 Maths Literacy Exam Papers Answers, Advanced Thermodynamics For Engineers Wark Solution Manual, Mcdougal Biology Chapter Review Answers, Electrostatics Class 12 Ncert Solutions, Solution Of Quantum Mechanics By Liboff, Everfi ModuleRead MoreGraduation Speech - Original Writing1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesitself at that point. The way we split up portions of the essay helped a great deal to the finished product. Every day in class we would review peer writing on the board, I improved slightly. The polar opposite of the unpolished gem of the timed essay test, this was allowed to evolve with time. I had days upon days to come up with the perfect adverb or the most clear sentence structure. Even the struggle of embedded quotations couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t deter my enthusiasm, I was locked in from day one. I worked endlesslyRead MoreI Just Wanna Be Average6008 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagespicked up along the way passed our days in the back of the bus, a funny mix brought toÃ gether by geography and parental desire. Entrance to school brings with it forms and releases and assessments. Mercy relied on a series of testsÃ¢â¬ ¦for placement, and somehow the results of my tests got confused with those of another stuÃ dent named Rose. The other Rose apparently didnt do very well, for I was placed in the vocational track, a euphemism for the bottom level. Neither I nor my parents realized what thisRead MoreQuestion and Correct Answer7042 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesempires population | | | | | Ã¯â · Question 28 2 out of 2 points | | | Why did Rome have multiple forums?Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: | Ã Ã Emperors competed with their predecessors to build the grandest forums | Correct Answer: | Ã Ã Emperors competed with their predecessors to build the grandest forums | | | | | Ã¯â · Question 29 2 out of 2 points | | | Why was Gaius Julius Caesar murdered in the Senate on March 15, 44 BCE?Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: | Ã Ã He hadRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagescontemporary texts in informal logic Ã¢â¬â keeping an eye on the sorts of arguments found in books on formal logic Ã¢â¬â forget, or underplay, how much of our daily reasoning is concerned not with arguments leading to truth-valued conclusions but with making choices, assessing reasons, seeking advice, etc. Dowden gets the balance and the emphasis right. Norman Swartz, Simon Fraser University v Acknowledgments For the 1993 edition: The following friends and colleagues deserve thanks for their help and Read MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words Ã |Ã 116 Pagesin Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ , when Kurtz struggles (and fails) to subdue the savage instincts concealed beneath his civilized English veneer. Most plots, it should be noted, contain more than one conflict. In some cases, however, these multiple conflicts are presented in a way that makes it extremely difficult to say with absolute certainty which one is the most decisive. It should be noted as well that the conflict of a story may exist prior to the formal initiation of the plot itselfRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 Pagesaction. Discussing this challenge under the heading of management control systems, Simons (1990: 142) concludes his inXuential article by noting: We need in fact a better language to describe management control processes. Control systems are used for multiple purposes: Monitoring, learning, signalling, constraint, surveillance, motivation, and others. Yet we use a single descriptorÃ¢â¬âmanagement control systemsÃ¢â¬âto describe these distinctly diVerent processes. In his subsequent writings on levers of control
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Dear Simon, I would personally like to welcome you to our country. To begin with, the basic primary functions of an operating system (OS) is managing resources such as coordinating the hard drive, internal memory, processor, etc. to make your computer run more smoothly. We will write a custom essay sample on Letter to Simon (Class Discussion) or any similar topic only for you Order Now The operating system also acts as a User Interface with the application Microsoft Office, with the trial version already installed onto your computer. Finally, running applications meaning running all the application software such as Microsoft Word in Microsoft Office which we are going to discuss. The main three features of Microsoft Office that I am going to discuss with you are spelling and grammar check feature, the status bar feature, and the Word Help feature. These features will be most helpful I believe with your experience as a student and a worker. The first we will discuss will be the spelling and grammar check feature. You will be able to use this feature to correct misspelled words and incorrect grammar in your document. This is most helpful when typing an essay for school and creating a document for the office such as a business proposal. As you type, Word automatically checks your typing for spelling and grammar errors. When you misspell a word or use incorrect grammar, a red (for the misspelling) and a green (for incorrect grammar) wavy underline will appear underneath the errors. You can go to the incorrect grammar or misspelled word and right click on the word to see the suggestions that Word will give you to put in place of the incorrect word and/or grammar. The next feature we will discuss is the status bar. It is located at the bottom of the current document window that you are creating just above the Windows task bar. It presents information about the document such as the progress of current tasks. It also displays how many pages in the document and on which page you are currently on. It also displays how many words you have typed which will be very helpful in the case that you may have to write a report with let us say 500 words in it. It also displays your spelling and grammar check icon to let you know if you have any errors. A blue check displayed on the icon means you do not currently have any errors, while a ed Ã¢â¬ËxÃ¢â¬â¢ mark means you have an error somewhere in your document, whether it be incorrect grammar or a misspelled word. Also, another feature of Microsoft Word, that I will include for you, that you may find useful is the templates. A template is a starting point that is pre-set, all that is needed done by the operator, which is you, is to fill in the blanks or replace pre-written supplements. Examples of templates include business letters, resumes, academic letters, personal letters, statements, etc. You can view your templates by clicking on the Office Button, then select New, and click on installed templates. The last feature we will discuss is the Word Help feature. It is very useful especially when you are new to Microsoft Word. Any time you are in the process of using Word, it does not matter if you are in the middle of a paragraph, page, or sentence, you can access Word Help to find answers to any of your questions. It responds with a list of search results with different links from many sources that you can click on to display your desired answer. It will minimize your time learning how to use Word and will reduce your frustrations. You can access it by clicking the Microsoft Office Word Help button near the upper right corner of your Word window displayed as a blue circle with a white question mark in the middle. A specific software application that I have found useful on my computer is Microsoft Office Excel. I have found it useful because I can keep track of my financial records, I can make a spreadsheet of how much money I currently have, how much I have spent, what I have spent that money for, and how much money I have remaining. I have also actually made a Ã¢â¬Å"potty chartÃ¢â¬ for my three-year-old daughter that every time she uses her Ã¢â¬ËpottyÃ¢â¬â¢ on any given day, she receives a sticker on that chart. I have also made chore charts for my household because I have a couple of friends staying with me until they get on their feet. We rotate the chores every week. Finally, the features of my current course website, E-College, that will help me to achieve success in my academic pursuits are: the main Course Home page where I can keep track of new announcements that my professor has posted; he Grade Book tab where I can check to see what my current grade is and the grades I have made on different assignments; and the email tab that lets me keep in touch with my instructor of any personal matters or any questions I may have that I do not want to be shared publicly. I can also keep in touch with my fellow classmates concerning any assignments that I may not understand and I will be able to ask them for help. Good luck with everything. I hope you do very well in your studies and profession. Your friend, Staci N. Phillips How to cite Letter to Simon (Class Discussion), Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Research in Business for Organizational Change in Multinational Corporations. Answer: Introduction Automobile Industry is considered to be the technical marvel and the fastest growing sectors when concerned with changing consumer demands for styling, safety and comfort. The automobile industry has been facing its cross roads not only because of labour relations but also because of manufacturing efficiency (Mitchell, 2010). However, to analyse the change management in the automobile industry it is best suited that it can be analysed through the organizational performance and the challenges that the organizations faces while entering Asian market in comparison to a developed country like European market. The organizational change is often considered to be ambiguous whether changes are made externally or internally. However, this means there is a shift that managers need to adapt and to be sensitive to organizational performance. The influence of organizational change can be in form of structures as well as systems that are deeply embedded in the organization. However, any change manifested is trickier and needs a planned strategy to reinforce the desired culture especially in a multinational organization (Bolo, 2014). On the other hand, for a successful change to take place there should be a need of sense of urgency that is incorporated on the build vision through effective communication that removes obstacles and builds on the momentum. Problem Statement The extent to which the organizational change has affected the multinational corporations is been dependent on various factors that can be dealt on an overall basis. To begin with internal factor like dispositional distinctiveness and employee empowerment are the key contributions that can affect the organizational change behaviourally. However, the interaction of the environment resists changing irrespective of change content, individual differences or change process. On the other hand, when we talk about the change in the automobile industry pertaining to organizations like Toyota and Volkswagen which come under the category of the multinationals, it is often reviewed that there are certain effects that are taken into consideration. For example, the internal factors like tastes as well as income preferences can even impact the decision followed by the external factors like government regulations can even influence the purchase decision. However, as analysed from the given facts tha t external changes are driven by PESTEL (political, social-cultural, legal, economic, technology and environmental) trends (Rop, 2013). Moreover for an organization to respond to change is based on its core competence irrespective of any market it choose whether it is Asian or European. The challenges that are often possessed internally are based on structures, systems and processes that altogether guarantee the existence and the survival of the organizations in the changing dynamics. Nevertheless gap keeps on widening when the pace and direction of the globalisation changes the concepts that are globally developed and are implemented and the change management processes forms a shape (Bolo, 2014). Research Objectives The overall aim of the project is to investigate pertaining to factors that can make successful organizations in the automobile industry can lead to the certain problems while entering any other country. However, the study elaborates the impact of the change management and the effects that it may cause to the multinationals in the automobile industry. To elaborate more specifically, the research study following research questions. What are the key factors that influence organizational change in the automobile multinationals like Toyota and Volkswagen? What are the changes that can be determined when influenced by the expansion of multinationals in the Asian market as compared to European market? How the pace and direction of globalisation can affect the change management in MNCs and how the key personnel is affected during the process internally? Justification of the Project The valuation of the project can be based on the multinational corporations that depend on the development and implementation of the production concepts which can be seen in the organization taking few steps towards crucial changes in professionalism or organization structure or professionalism. The essence of the study lies in the changes that have been effectively engaged in the transition process. Moreover, the study has been subjected to automobile industry like Toyota and Volkswagen that will provide an insight on the global business environment and the way the changes have been adopted in the different markets. On the other hand, organization internally poses a challenge as it may lead to large superficial compliance due to the coercive pressure that has been decided by the values held within the organization. Moreover, the organizational changes can be beneficial if the leaders of the management conduit to an effective change (Fullan, 2014). In today's associations, the rate of progress has never been faster or steadier; subsequently, this study seen profoundly helped in the vitality of good change management preparing for supporting managers, in viably driving change all through their associations. As a result, this could be provided as a guide to the multinational corporations in the automobile industry (Bolo, 2014). Expected Research Output/ Outcome The expected research outcome of the project lies that change management impacts positively as well as negatively on the organizational performance especially in the automobile industry where the tastes and preferences of the customer keeps on changing. Moreover different styles exists in different organizations such that global flexibility in the system is more in the Asian market as compared to the European market because of the cross cultural training provided to the managers as well as the employees internally and the changing needs (Sun, Mellahi Thun, 2010). As the organization like Toyota and Volkswagen will continue to grow in the markets, they will continue experiencing the factors. As a result, the organization faces a lot of crunches in the Asian market due to the production costs s well as the total manufacturing output developed based on the sponsored initiative. Conversely, the strategic partnerships in European market has achieved a sophisticated as well as global netw ork which not only includes joint ventures but also possesses the production as well as assembly sites that lets the organization suffer many drastic change whether it is pertaining to production or technology (Waldchen, 2012). However, Volkswagen is produced in Europe but its market in Asia as to be fully based on value as well as engineering services based on the demand of the product. Conceptual Framework ad Research Outcomes The chapter focuses on the international business as well as the globalization firms in the automobile industry that seeks to identify the effect of change on the multinationals operations and the way they effect the change in different markets. Resource Dependence Theory Resource Dependence theory is based to form an alliance with the other organization to enhance the organizational autonomy as well as legitimacy. This theory mainly studies the external and environmental factors that not only affect the behaviour of the organization but also impact the change that needs to be manifested in the organization (Liu Ko, 2011). The environment to a significant degree contains different associations in the organization such that the need of resources in one organization is different from other. However, independent organizations chiefly can take help from other organizations in terms of resources. The theory highlights the other optimal divisions of the organizations through the basis of divisional structure that not only links the production strategies but also highlights the external organizational links with the multidimensional resources like raw material, labour or capital that comes to taking initiative from these resources. Nonetheless, the organizations moves forward with the principle of scarcity as well as criticality. Invariably when the shocks are introduced due to the new market then more strategies are applied whether it is through the association of the suppliers whether to integrate vertically or horizontally (Blair Kaserman, 2014). According to the firms environment, resource dependence concerns more with the organizations tat are externally applicable such that the non executive decisions have not only greater impact but also tied to the demand of the consumer on which the companies depend whether it is a locally formed organization or is a multinational cor poration (Hillman, Withers Collins, 2009). International Business in Multinational Corporations International business in a form of business organization adds to the dependency on the foreign trade depending on underling the factors to carry forward in a business. According to Cantwell, Dunning Lundan (2010), international business is dynamic and integrated and outlines the basic four elements like the globalisations process, international organizational change as well as business environment. Out of the for elements, the main focus relies on the globalization process, as the outlook of the organization needs to be changed in accordance with different cultures as well as communities such that the monopolists promote the globalisation. The challenges in the global environment can be well explained by the diagrams below. Figure: Global Business Environment Source: (Wild, 2010) The organizations have been extracting, processing as well as transporting the key requirements that not only fulfils the requirements in the home countries but also facilitates the business interests in the manufacturing countries. Multinational corporations have led to the development on international business market as well as international capital market that have led to transformations (Dunning, 2013). The organizational change and business environments have constantly been evolving and can be evident from the long term trend towards the national borders. However, organizations needs to follow rules in whichever country they operate based on the markets conditioning. Organizational Change: Management and Effect The theory of change management is based on the linkages that initiates a logical pathway for the change to occur depending on the nature of the change whether it short term, intermediate or long-term (Sharma, 2015). The concept includes many perspectives that accompany solutions from the bottom level of management to the top level of management. According to Weiss (2014), theory of change is indeterminate and is based on the assumption that takes short steps for the long term goal, while making connections between activities as well as outcomes that will help in fulfilling the change in the long-term. These changes effect the organizational change as well through the globalization of technology in the business environment or the idea of a revolutionized business. Conversely, a change can be differentiated depending on the nature of change whether it is negative or positive (Stone 2010). While keeping the nature of change; management decides the change to be implemented internally or externally starting with managing people through the training and learning of skills within the organization. On the contrary, the external effect is accounted by the availability and the knowledge accountability in the expansion of technology that builds a pressure on the management from the scrutiny from media as well as the stockholders (Heifetz, Grashow Linsky, 2009). However, major and fast authoritative change is significantly troublesome on the grounds that the structure, society, and schedules of associations regularly mirror a tenacious and hard to-evacuate "engraving" of past periods, which are impervious to radical change even as the present environment of the association changes quickly (Clark Taplin, 2012). The two models that briefly describe the change are Kotters 8-Step Change Model as well as Kublers Change model that are adapted in the organization. The brief explanation is given in the diagrams below. Figure: Kotter 8-Step Change Model Source: (Kotter, 2012) Figure: Kubler Ross Change Curve Source: (Thuijsman, 2015) Automobile Industry in Different Markets: Asian and European Market The economics of change in the automobile industry can majorly be affected by the risks that the mature markets like Asia and Europe can face. However, today the automobile industry is facing challenges because of capacity, competitors, production and redundancy and overlap of the global price war. In European Market The automobile industry is far equipped and primarily represents 9% of the manufacturing sector to the economy. The industry characteristics highlights that the market is sophisticated in global network which not only includes production or cooperatives but also leads to the intense competition that can be considered to be the effect that the change management can enforce on the product from Asian market. Although, the market produces, many brands like General Motors, Volkswagen and Fiat but Volkswagen is the one that faces competition in the Asian market as the consumer demand is very peculiar and the demand for sch high priced automobiles is less. However, as a matter of fact, lastly, services are valued in Asian market based on the engineering and design of the European market (Nag, Banerjee Chatterjee, 2007). In Asian Market Asian Market is well drive by the Japan as well as Thailand industries that represents 13% on the output in the manufacturing sector. Asian market is majorly driven by FDI of Japan. However, apart from theist e change has been initiated by the sponsored initiatives taken b countries like Korea, China and India where they are developing automobiles indigenous base (Horaguchi Shimokawa, 2013). However, others are driven by multinationals as it supports to provide a broader market. However, Asian market in EU is mostly profitable. The major players in the ASEA are Toyota, Suzuki, GM and Hyundai. However, the market is slow, when it comes to adapting to organization change as countries are expected to increase the rate by 10-20% but with lack of resources and globalisation process it is still striving. Nonetheless, the adoption of AFTA is expected to lower the challenges and effects of change management in organization performance as well as it will help in providing a regional export m arket (Nag, Banerjee Chatterjee, 2007). Based on the problem statement and the research objectives, the research hypothesis tat can be developed in the study are: Ho: Null Hypothesis: Change management does not have any impact on organizational performance for large and multinational organizations H1: Alternate Hypothesis: Change management does creates an impact on organizational performance for large and multinational organizations Methodology The methodologies that can be adopted effectively to evaluate the research proposal is given as: Literature Review There is a need of the thorough analysis of the relevant literature taken and applied from various sources like Google Scholar, Emerald Insights as well as Peer reviewed journals by several authors. However, the thematic analysis has played a vital role in examining the study of change management on organizational performance. Data Series and Research Methods The research proposal has taken the thematic as well as data related content from the journals as well as educational websites to attain an idea of change management in automobile industry. The data series and methods are analysed on two different methods broadly that is Online Survey based Questionnaire and focussed interview groups. Survey Based Questionnaire The survey based questionnaire will be handed to a total of 30 respondents who will be based on stratified random sampling of two organizations - Toyota and Volkswagen in the automobile industry. However, the respondents will be given the questionnaire after getting the consent signed that their personal information would remain confidential. Nonetheless, the questionnaire will be based on the 5 point Likert Scale ( where Strongly Agree = 5 to Strongly Disagree = 1) (Fan Yan, 2010). However, the questions will be based on the effects of change management that the organization Volkswagen and Toyota face while entering in Asian and European market respectively. Focus Interview Groups The focus interview groups is taken evaluated on the primary data on the group of eight to ten people in a group interview (Stewart Shamdasani, 2014). However, this data will be qualitative in nature as the knowledge of change management will be gathered based on the understanding of human interactions and perceptions regarding the subject. Observing Key Indicators The key indicators mentioned will be pointing out the globalization process and business environment both internally as well as externally. Data Analysis Methods The two methods that will be advocated in the research are qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method will be advocated in the focus research interviews on the primary data whereas quantitative method will be advocated on survey questionnaire on the secondary data. The techniques that will be essentially used for the quantitative data will be based on the descriptive statistics and multiple regression model sch that effects of change management will be termed as independent variables and organizational performance will be termed as dependent variables (Hantrais Mangen, 2013). However, the regression analysis will test the hypothesis and will consider the likelihood of Type I and Type II errors. On the other hand, the data collected will be analysed using the statistical tool, SPSS were the compiled raw data will be transferred from Excel. Te research will be based on the Asian as well as European market of automobiles industry on deciding the strategy used in te markets for adapting the change management However, for analysing the data, the concepts from literature will help in establishing the relationships and comparing the results of theory with the data. Lastly, the research findings will be discussed on the online questionnaire as well as focussed research interviews Organization of the Study The framework of the study will be followed as Chapter One will be the Research Proposal as drawn in this assignment. Chapter Two will depict the study of change management on organizational performance of the multinational corporation highlighting the automobile industry in Asian and European market. Chapter Three will comprise of the framework of methodology literature review and data surveys (data collection methods), observing key indicators and data analysis methods in the research. Chapter Four will report the Findings and Discussions of the research Chapter Five will summarize the important findings and discuss their implications of analyzing the change management in the automobile industry. Gantt chart The following table highlights the timeline for the research proposal to be completed. Task Start Date Duration End Date Project Proposal 17-Sep 15.00 02-Oct Literature Review 03-Oct 60.00 04-Jan Data Collection 05-Jan 55.00 29-Feb Data Analysis 01-Mar 30.00 31-Mar Final Report Submission 01-Apr 31.00 30-Apr Project Budget and Budget Justification The budget for the proposed research was nearby to $4500 to complete the research in the designed framework for 1st April 2016 as mentioned in the Gantt chart above. The literature review undertakes the se of peer reviewed journals as well as published journals in emerald insights with the text books to a have a proper knowledge which were costly. The cost came out to be as $1000 Data Collection techniques were in the form of online questionnaires as well as focussed interview groups involved much cost as organizations had to be approached in person and the data collected on interviews were to be recorded whereas questionnaire even involved costs because it needed to be filled by the respondents. However, the travelling cost and postal services were availed which costed to be around $2700 On the other hand, in order to access charts and company as well as market figures, some of the budget was allocated to this purpose even. The cost came out to be $800. References Blair, R. D., Kaserman, D. L. (2014).Law and economics of vertical integration and control. Academic Press. Bolo, W. A. (2014).Organizational change in multinational corporations: a case study of ecolab-nalco mergerin Kenya(Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi). Cantwell, J., Dunning, J. H., Lundan, S. M. (2010). An evolutionary approach to understanding international business activity: The co-evolution of MNEs and the institutional environment.Journal of International Business Studies,41(4), 567-586. Clark, H, and Taplin, D. (2012). Theory of Change Basics: A Primer on Theory of Change. New York: Acknowledge. Dunning, J. H. (2013).Multinationals, Technology Competitiveness (RLE International Business)(Vol. 13). Routledge. Fan, W., Yan, Z. (2010). Factors affecting response rates of the web survey: A systematic review.Computers in human behavior,26(2), 132-139. Fullan, M. (2014).Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley Sons. Hantrais, L., Mangen, S. (Eds.). (2013).Cross-national research methodology and practice. Routledge. Heifetz, R. A., Grashow, A., Linsky, M. (2009).The practice of adaptive leadership: Tools and tactics for changing your organization and the world. Harvard Business Press. Hillman, A. J.,Withers, M. C. and B. J. Collins (2009). "Resource dependence theory: A review." Journal of Management 35: 1404-1427. Horaguchi, H., Shimokawa, K. (Eds.). (2013).Japanese foreign direct investment and the East Asian industrial system: case studies from the automobile and electronics industries. Springer Science Business Media. Kotter, J. (2012). The 8-step process for leading change.Kotter International. Liu, G., Ko, W. W. (2011). An analysis of cause-related marketing implementation strategies through social alliance: Partnership conditions and strategic objectives.Journal of Business Ethics,100(2), 253-281. Mitchell, W. J. (2010).Reinventing the automobile: Personal urban mobility for the 21st century. MIT press. Nag, B., Banerjee, S., Chatterjee, R. (2007). Changing features of the automobile industry in Asia: comparison of production, trade and market structure in selected countries.Asia-Pacific Research and training network on Trade, Working paper series,37. Rop, K. (2013). A case study of firms quoted in the NSE in Kenya on strategies adopted by MNEs in response to political changes, Unpublished MBA project, University of Nairobi Sharma, C., 2015. Change Management. InBusiness Process Transformation(pp. 123-146). Springer India. Stewart, D. W., Shamdasani, P. N. (2014).Focus groups: Theory and practice(Vol. 20). Sage Publications. Stone, K. B. (2010).Relationships between organizational performance and change factors and manufacturing firms' leanness. Colorado State University. Sun, P., Mellahi, K., Thun, E. (2010). The dynamic value of MNE political embeddedness: The case of the Chinese automobile industry.Journal of International Business Studies,41(7), 1161-1182. Thuijsman, T., 2015. Leadership styles and their influence on employees regarding the acceptance of organizational change. Wldchen, D. (2012). Catch up processes in the global automobile industry. Weiss, J. W. (2014).Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Wild J. J. (2010). International Business: The Challenges of Globalization, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill
Friday, November 29, 2019
Cancer is the unrestrained increase in aberrant body cells. These anomalous cells divide faster than normal cells and form tumors that proliferate throughout the body. These uncharacteristic cells do not die easily. Different body organs or tissues can develop cancer.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Explanation of Cancer Disease specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This leads to numerous types of cancers depending on the part of the body where they form (The New York Times, 2012). Examples of cancers are breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, among many others. This article gives an overview of what the public ought to know about the cancers. Indicators of cancers depend on the location of the malignant cells. For example, constipation and passing watery or blood-stained stool may be witnessed in colon cancer. On the other hand, coughing, chest pain, and difficulties in breathing may accompany cancer of the lungs. However, the general symptoms of all cancers include loss of weight, exhaustion, depression, and appetite loss. These symptoms may not always mean that an individual has cancer. However, it is vital that a person with such symptoms must undergo a thorough medical examination. This report identifies high risk dynamics of cancers. Such dynamics include poisons in the environment, viruses, genetics, obesity, exposure to radiations, and alcoholism. Dietary alterations may also put certain people at risk of cancers. This report attributes the high incidences of stomach cancer in Japan to the Japanese diet. This article cites the leading cancers in women and men in the United States. It shows that cancer of the breast leads among the women whereas prostate cancer is common among men. This report also gives some pieces of advice on precautions to take against cancers, among which are diagnosis of cancers, and available treatment options.Advertising Looking for essay on health medici ne? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This article covers descriptive epidemiology adequately. It gives essential information on cancers such as causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. However, it does not give information on measures of disease frequency. It does not give prevalence and incidence rates of cancer (actual numbers involved). Bonita, Beaglehole, Kdjellstrom, and World Health Organization argue that such information (prevalence and incidence) is useful in the progress Ã¢â¬Å"of epidemics of non communicable diseasesÃ¢â¬ (2006). References Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., Kdjellstrom, T. World Health Organization (2006). Basic epidemiology. India: World Health Organization. The New York Times (2012). Cancer. Web. This essay on Explanation of Cancer Disease was written and submitted by user Dorothy A. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Sears And Roebuck Company Essays - Sears Holdings, Business Sears And Roebuck Company Business Marketing Term Paper Sears and Roebuck Company For this paper I will be looking at an old established company, that has re-addressed its target market. To increase penetration in the market and expand in new markets, Sears has refocused its market concept. In the past Sears was where your grandparents shopped for quality product. As they sat back and enjoyed the comfort of their brand name and reaped the benefits, other companies sliced away at the market with new concepts in advertising until about five years ago when Sears woke up to a lagging profit margin. Sears began a recovery to regain market shares lost through complacency. To do this they gathered their staff and commenced to focus on new innovative techniques to cater to the needs of their consumers. First they looked at the production which was well established but could be streamlined. Some items could be eliminated or replaced by other brand name products to give the consumer a broader choice of items. For example they sold the Advantis computer branch to IBM when the projected competition would limit revenues in this area. They also negotiated lucrative contracts with brand name companies for the exclusive retailing rights for their product, an example of this is the Nordic Track home fitness equipment in January of this year. They targeted school age children with the new styles, which they refer to as the Relaxed Uniformity which increased sales in July of 1998. This helped bring in the younger and health conscious consumers who did not feel that the Sears brand name was ri ght for them. This stream lining effort would include shutting down some of the lagging catalog sales offices. This allowed them to establish more competitive prices in the market and better returns for their shareholders. This led to an increase in domestic revenues by 4.2 percent in 1998. The next areas they looked at were the location of their stores and the placement of the products in their stores. Some of the older stores which did not have a profit margin that warranted the expense of their upkeep where eliminated to cut overhead expenses. In addition, using trend analysis focusing on consumer habits, they took a hard look at the layout of the stores to see if they could improve sales through a better display or more efficient floor plans. Sears decided to set up displays, which bring the consumer walking by into the store and the product that has the return buyers interest in the back of store. With this in mind they revamped the floor plans and placed the items they knew the patron would search out to the back of the stores which forced the customer to pass by other product they did not realize was stocked by Sears. The placement of other products, which had lagged in the past, in high traffic areas, increased the sales of those items. Last but not least, once Sears had the company market strategy drawn out; they needed to inform the public of the changes they had made and figure out how they could meet the consumers needs. Sears re-launched its successful Softer Side of Sears advertising campaign that helped the company's turnaround by highlighting its renewed focus on women's apparel. The new version of the Softer Side campaign, which included print and broadcast ads, invited customers to Take Another Look at the fashions available at Sears. The Softer Side of Sears campaign achieves the key marketing objectives. It changes customers' perception of Sears, drives traffic into the stores, and demonstrates Sears commitment to offering customers stylish and relevant womens apparel, said Arthur C. Martinez, chairman and chief executive officer of Sears. Now the challenge is to build greater loyalty with our customer and reinforce Sears position as a destination place for apparel that fits her lifestyle. Reinforcing Sears commitment to serving its primary customer, a woman age 25 to 54 with a moderate household income, family and home. This campaign builds upon and personalizes Sears invitation to Come See the Softer Side of Sears by illustrating that Sears has more than fashionable apparel; it has the right apparel for her. The original Softer Side campaign, Developed by Young & Rubicam
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Role of the Health and Social Care Professionals in the Care of an ACS Patient - Essay Example 265). Social care professionals are also mandated to provide patients with ACS with sufficient information. Before arriving in the hospital, patients with ACS must be provided with adequate information by the care providers such as the ability of the hospital to adequately manage the condition. Moreover, patient centered care demands that, on arrival, patients are sufficiently informed on the procedure and investigations which they would undergo through. The informative role of health care professional is also important when patients are receiving test results. In this case, health care professional must discuss the available treatment options for the conditions so that patient is enabled to make informed decisions (Marshall, 2011, p. 48). The anxiety which patients with ACS demonstrate reveals that social care professional must be skilled and able to apply these skills in elevating the fears within the patients about their conditions. Movahed, et al (2010, p. 60) point out that the plan of the health care professionals must therefore include providing their patients with accurate information with a view of removing any misconceptions that the patients would be having about the ACS. Nonetheless the most important consideration of the heal care professionals in patient centered care for ACS is provision of evidence based knowledge to their patients and update them about the care and also the management of their condition. Furthermore, health care professionals and social care workers are mandated to assess the understanding of the patient on their condition, treatment and its management. This will allow them to provide the patients with both written and verbal information as they deem necessary (Otterstad and Brosstad, 2004, p. 10). Family members must also be provided with adequate information about the condition of the patient. However, patient centered care especially in providing information to family and friends must not violate the ethical and legal rights of the patient for confidentiality and privacy. In this regard, it is the role of the health care professionals to preserve patient confidentiality and acquire the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s consent before informing family and friends about critical aspects of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. Kumar and Cannon (2009, p. 918) shows that in the care of NSTEMI patients and ACS in general, health care professionals play a role of diagnosis and management of the heart condition. This means that health care professionals must have and make use of evidence based knowledge on the assessment, stratification or risk and the management of patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome such as STEMI and NSTEMI. The management plan for social care professionals must be focused on enhancing the experience of the patient and the outcomes of the health care (Schoenenberger, et al, 2011, p. 302). For this to be achieved, health care professional and social workers must have a comprehensive understanding of the various tools which are applied in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. These tools include physical examination, history taking, biochemical markers and ECG recording. It is thus the role of health care professional and social care providers to apply the various treatment options in the care of STEMI or NSTEMI patient after a conclusive diagnosis has been reached
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The impact of effective training on a company - Essay Example In order to gain a full understanding of what training is, it is imperative to begin by explaining the meaning of the whole concept. Mullins (2010, p 502) define training as Ã¢â¬Å"content based activity, normally away from the workplace with an instructor leading and aiming to change individual behaviour or attitudes. Training and development are beneficial for both firms and the employees. In most cases, the performance of the employee is shaped by their attitude or behaviour towards something. Of notable concern is the fact that these attitudes and behaviours are not static since they are subject to change. Managers that are concerned about improving productivity as well as performance of their employees ought to identify the areas in which the employees need training so that they can improve their performance at work. This will also help the organization to achieve its desired goals and objectives. In most cases, successful training begins with the needs assessment which is used to determine the number of employees that need to be trained and what they need to be trained in order to accomplish. A set of objectives is often formulated and these state the purpose of the training and the competencies that are required by the trainees. . Swanepoel et al (1998) suggest that the needs analysis of training requires time, money and expertise. Successful training ought to be properly planned since it may negatively impact on the employees if poorly conducted. When the managers have identified the employees who need training, a proper program is put in place and this ought to be properly followed in order to obtain the desired results. Training is not an event but it should be a continuous process that is aimed at constantly improving the performance of the employees. Schultz et al (2003) posit to the effect that the viability of the organization can be achieved if it has programs that are intended to train and develop the employees such that they are in a position t o deal with the challenges they may encounter in their dispensation of their duties. The employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills should be upgraded in order for them to be able to meet the demands of the ever changing environment in which they operate. Therefore, it is imperative for the HRM to make sure that basic training is provided to the employees so that they are equipped with the required knowledge and competencies to deal with challenging tasks that can arise in their work. This also helps the employees to come up with amicable solutions that can help to deal with problems they may encounter in their operations. It is quite obvious that we are moving into a knowledge economy where employees should be trained so that their skills and competencies are improved. Hurn (2007) posits to the effect that training can help to improve the performance of people who come from different cultural backgrounds. This will help them to generate knowledge about different cultural aspects that can impact on t heir performance in the workplace in different areas. Basically, the purpose of training is to improve the skills and to change attitude (Mullins, 2010). Training can be a great motivator in the workplace and it can lead to many possible benefits for both the individual and the organization. For instance, training can increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff (Mullins, 2010). Motivated employees are committed to their work and
Monday, November 18, 2019
Policy memo - Research Paper Example ld Left Behind Act was meant to assure the quality of education and develop accountability it seems that its goals are attainable and beyond the scope of the law. The No Child Left Behind Act meant to model education among children from disadvantaged backgrounds and to ensure that irrespective of race, colour or health status, each child had the right to access to quality education. The policy required that the performance of the students be assessed from time to time to ensure that children performed well between 2rd grade and 8th grade (Olivert 23-27). The ability of the policy to set the standards of education and find ways of measuring performance is an important aspect of ensuring that all students become responsible citizens. To ensure that all students, including those from struggling families performed well, the policy stated that all student who do not attain the minimum score be provided with extra tuition or have their study time extended. This would go on until they attain they attain the benchmark grades to proceed with their education. This is crucial in ensuring that all students get good grades to acquire employment despite an y economic constraints. To maintain accountability, the Act required that the teachers regularly report on the performance of students and provide results at the each of year. The Act achieved accountability by compelling the teachers to account for the performance of the student throughout the learning process. The teachers had to monitor the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ results every time to ensure that all children achieve good grades (Roberts 12). The Act required that the schools and the district boards provide detailed report cards to the parents reflecting the performance of every child. Secondly, the NCLB Act required that strict measures be taken against teachers who do not deliver in terms of education performance in schools. The extreme measures include the change of the worker structure in the learning institutions. The policy
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts: Types and Characteristics Survival of one life form is dependent not only on its ability to search and utilize available life sustaining resources but also upon its healthy competition for various such requisites with other life forms belonging to either the same or different species. To facilitate this, different life forms have evolved with special assets of abilities to exist, work and exhibit a tendency to proliferate so as to flag their dominance on ecological niche. Scientific communities at times are amazed by the kinds of interaction in which different life forms co-exist with each other and also with the surroundings. In plants, interaction science has emerged as a major area of research which deals with investigating and studying such phenomena in detail, their mechanism, reasoning for interactions of plant with plant, animals, and/or micro-organism. Evolution of a new species from an existing ancestral mob assures adaptation to new and more efficient modes of existence, wherein lesser inputs are in vested for more possible benefits. One such example is the parasitic plants or epiphytes. Parasitic plants comprise 19 families in angiosperms and constitute to about 4,100 species (Nickrent. and Musselman, 2004). Among these with various parasitic habits, mistletoes are well known as perrenial, polyphyletic group of angiospermic aerial plant parasites (Devkota, 2005) infecting generally host stem and/or branches, and belong to families, Viscaceae and Loranthaceae. Mistletoes are considered as an important component of biodiversity (Watson, 2001; Shaw et al., 2004), and have been appraised not only due to their unique parasitic relationship with their respective hosts, their growth habits, mechanism of seed dispersal but also because of their miraculous medicinal values which includes their use as sympathetic medicine to take down abnormal tissue growth under cancer (Kunwar et al.2005). They are predominantly known to occur on fruit trees. Mistletoes are characterised by the development of a root like absorptive organ called haustorium which forms the host parasite interface and draws nutrients from the host conductive tissues to the parasite (Devkota, 2005). Dendrophthoe falcata is a hemi-parasitic plant belonging to the Loranthaceae mistletoes and is considered as the commonest of all other mistletoes widely occurring in India (Parker acnd Westwood, 2009). The genus Dendrophthoe comprises of about 31 species spread across tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia (Flora of China, 2003) among which 7 species are found in India. The sp. falcata has its hold in India since ancient times and has been in use as traditional folklore medication for various ailments. Though a parasite incurring huge losses to commercial fruit and timer production, it is considered and welcomed as a sacred sign of prosperity in few areas of rural India. Well globally, much of the advanced scientific investigations have centered on other mistletoes such as Orobanche, Viscum etc. These studies have aimed towards understanding the parasite behaviour, sap flow dynamics at the host parasite interface, chemical compositions of floral organs, designing successful control st rategies, evaluating medicinal potentials etc. The present review will focus on the existing literature earlier attempts aiming study of various scientific aspects associated with D.falcata. The review considerably outlines the variety of studies performed revolving around the host-parasite relationship, morphology and geographical distribution, and studies aiming towards in vitro establishment and attempts towards scientific justification of the ethno-medicinal properties, and various existing and possible control strategies for this mistletoe family member. Morphology and biogeography: Evolutionarily, mistletoes belonging to Loranthaceae are considered older than those of Viscaceae and ever since their origin from dense Gondwanan forests; they have successfully encompassed tropics, subtropics and arid portions on the globe through their nutritional competition-driven conquests (Devkota et al, 2005). Notes on floral morphology and embryology in D.falcata have been provided by Singh (1952). D.falcata bears grey barks, thick coriaceous leaves variable in shape with stout flowers (Wealth of India. 2002). The flowering inflorescences in D.falcata was previously referred to as axillary or as developing on the scars of fallen leaves, but Y.P.S Pundir (1996) verified it to be of strictly cauliflorous nature and also notified that it shares fundamental similarity to that of Ficus glomerata, F. pomifera and F. hispida. Two of its varieties are widespread in India namely, var. falcata (Honey Suckled Mistletoe) and var. Coccinea (Red Honey Suckled Mistletoe) distinguished by occurrence of white and red flowering, respectively (Flowers of India, a World Wide Web resource). A comprehensive list of almost all the species within the genus Dendrophthoe can be availed (from web source at http://www.naturekind.org/taxpage/0/binomial/Dendrophthoe_falcata). Haustorial polymorphism, leaf mimicry, explosive flowering, fruit adhesive pulp etc. Singh, B., 1952. A contribution to the floral morphology and embryology of Dendrophthoe falcata (L. f.) Ettingsh. Jour. Linn. Soc., Lond., 53, 449. Dendrophthoe homoplastica (mistle- toe) mimic those of its common host, Eucalyptus shirleyi. (Robert L. Mathiasen, David C. Shaw, Daniel L. Nickrent, David M. Watson,2008 Plant Disease / Vol. 92 No. 7) Hosts and host-parasite relationships: Mistletoes occur mostly on forest, fruit and ornamental host trees preferentially harboring zones rich in biodiversity and thus are found excessively on mountain ridges provided with favorably optimum light intensities and in few in slopes and plains (Devkota, 2005 and references therein). Mistletoes do not follow a uniform pattern of distribution which is affected by local environments and effected by habits of seed dispersing avian visitors. Host range: Earliest, B.Singh (1962) reported that the leafy mistletoe D.falcata is parasitic on over 300 hosts in India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and northern Australia. IndiaÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s rich plant biodiversity in 1977 could report exclusive host range numbering 345 plants susceptible to infection from this mistletoe (Siva Sarma and Vijayalakshmi 1977) which is a significant number as it contributes to its comparatively recent global record for 401 hosts (Shaw 1993). Till date, D.falcata represents the only known mistletoe with the largest global host range (Calvin and Wilson, 2009) which is continuously and rapidly widening. Haustoria: Mistleoes are known to form haustorial structures at the point of attachment to the host. Among angiosperms, parasitic relationship through the formation of haustorial linkages is known to be widespread (Wilson and Calvin, 2006). In general, haustorial connections among 72 (of the 75) ariel parasitic genera may belong to either of the four types viz., epicortical roots (ERs), clasping unions, wood roses, and bark strands (Calvin and Wilson, 1998). ERs may run along the host branches in either direction forming haustorial structures at variable intervals while Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½unionsÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ occur as single points of attachment of individual parasites hence pronounced as solitary. In D,falcata on different hosts two of the haustorial kinds have been observed viz., solitary unions as on Sugar apple (Annona squamosa), and epicortical roots as on sugar apple (Achras sapota), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum) have been observed. It is unknown about what factors decide formation of different haustorial types by the leafy mistletoe on different hosts. The host branches infected with D.falcata show a gradual reduction in growth and diameter as compared to other healthy uninfected branches (Karunaichamy et al, 1999). It has also been reported that the development of mistletoe plants on the host tree is a dynamic process which necessarily leads to the death of the host tree and that the whole process may last for about a decade (Karunaichamy et al, 1999). It is known that mistletoes have higher nutrient titer than their host (Lamont, 1983; Karunaichamy et al, 1993) and this could probably be attributed to a competitively higher water (including dissolved nutrient and growth promoting metabolite) uptake rate by the parasite at its haustorium at a point in the host branch in comparison to that in the protruding lateral ends of the branch (that extends after the haustorium). This might render key nutrients be unavailable to the host branches that could repress growth post-infection (Stewart and Press, 1990). But in work by Karunaichamy et al (1999) one D.falcata seed per stem of Azadirachta indica seedling has been tested which has shown the life threatening effect on whole plant which again itself i s at an immature seedling stage (so death of the whole plant could be expected). In a broad sense, physiological and metabolic perturbations induced by the parasite in the whole host plant outlined at the seedling stage surmised by the reduced host leaf area, leaf number, growth performance upon infection cannot be correlated to that in a fully mature host. (statement in bold italics) could be justified by that there may be an increment in the probability of multiple mistletoe seed dispersals or extended reach of haustorial structures to other branches of the same tree (as we saw in Guava) that might possibly lead to a gradual depletion of key metabolites (thereby lowering an essential threshold titer for the same) required for growth of the host plant altogether. Alternatively though unknown, it might also be possible or still unknown if the hemi-parasites dissipate any unknown metabolite in to the host xylem at the point of anchor formation that may inhibit growth and metabolism in the hostÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s axillary meristems and the whole host plant life may only be at stake if such inhibitory effects are perceived by all plant parts. This again is contradictory hypothesis as evident from fact that the haustorial connections of the parasite with the plant are devoid of any retranslocation system (Smith and Stewart, 1990, also see later). Once more, a report by Sridhar and Rama Rao (1978) unraveled the infection of D.falcata surprisingly hosting itself directly on the fruit (Table 1) of Acharas sapota (Sapota). Almost all the hemi-parasitic members of the Loranthaceae tap the xylem vessels of their host to avail water and minerals but to a considerable extent produce their own supply of assimilates (Kuijt, 1969). D.falcata does not have an indigenous rooting system and is dependent on the host for water and minerals. Nutrient dynamics have shown that a higher titre of N, P , K, Mg and Na in the leaves of mistletoe than the leaves of uninfected and infected hosts which may be due to differential translocation of elements within the host phloem (Prakash et al, 1967; Karunaichamy et al, 1999). Nitrogen loss is well pronounced in mistletoe infected hosts and a higher potassium levels in mistletoe is an indicative of higher transpiration rates and a lack of re-translocation system (Karunaichamy et al, 1999 and references t herein). Though outlined above that the total phosphorous in mistletoe leaves is present in excess as compared to that the host leaves, fractionation studies have elucidated that percentage acid-insoluble phosphate is comparatively lesser in the parasite and also that further fractionation again infers a lower percentage of phospholipid, RNA, DNA and phosphoproteins. The DNA content of the infected host leaves however demonstrate a dramatic increase compared to the healthy uninfected leaves (Prakash et al, 1967). Mistletoes are believed to mimic their hosts in floral structures. At some instance it was supported by a hypothesis which explains that such behaviour imparts protection to the mistletoe from the herbivores. Later, the hypothesis was field tested, rejected and replaced by a belief that a host parasite resemblance might help to safeguard hostsÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ individual fitness by signaling the birds to expel mistletoe seeds on other uninfected hosts (Atsatt, 1979). Moreover, the hosts and parasite follow individual developmental scheduling of events under which the parasite might experience an influence from a firm epigenetic hormonal control on leaf size and shape thus evolving the mimicry or resemblance to the host(). List of hosts: Loranthaceous parasites were known in India since 1885 and until then only 35 species were known. Specifically for D.falcata from among the earliest of the reports, 268 host species have been known to be under the clutch of the deadly hemiparasite (Ravindranath and Narsimha Rao, 1959), and shortly later B.Singh (1962) reported its parasitic relation with over 300 hosts reported in India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and northern Australia. Until 1993, a report by Shaw III depicts a global increase of host range to 401. In Indian tropics 37 species of tree have been reported as the favourite hosts for D.falcata (Ghosh et al., 2002). Due to the ever increasing host range (Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978) currently it is difficult to draw a margin between the more and less common host genera. Vectors for seed dispersal and pollination: Seed dispersal as well as pollination is usually mediated by the birds that thrive on fruits from the parasite and/or host. Particularly in southern India, TickelÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½s Flowerpecker which is also named as Pale-billed Flowerpecker (Dicaeum erythrohynchos, Latham) is reported to facilitate seed dispersal of D. falcata among Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. belonging to Meliaceae) through fecal excretions or regurgitations (Karunaichamy et al, 1999; Hambali, 1977 and references therein). The mistletoe bird also eats insects and therefore has a grinding gizzard. When eating the mistletoe berry the bird is able to close the gizzard and the toxic seeds are usually swallowed as a whole and are shunt through their gut in about 3-4 minute (Murphy et al., 1993) and because the seed has a sticky coating, to get rid of the seed the bird applies its vent to the edges of the host tree branches and may turn around whereby the seed then sticks onto the branch where it may subsequently germin ate (Ali, 1931; Ali 1932; Davidar, 1985). These birds also act as vectors for pollination in the hemi-parasite whose flowers bear a mechanism that causes pollen to explosively spray on the plumage of the visiting flowerpeckers (Karunaichamy et al., 1999; Vidal-Russell and Nickrent, 2008). Studies conducted in the higher altitudes of Western Ghats (where both the mistletoes and the flowerpeckers occur predominantly), which parallel the western coast of India infer that the flowerpecker pollinated mistletoes have particularly developed feature specialized to attract a unique vector both to facilitate pollination and seed dispersal: the fruit and flowers have similar resemblance and more significantly, the fruiting time overlap with the next flowering season (Davidar, 1983). Hair-crested Drongo or Spangled Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) is an Asian bird of the family Dicruridae and sunbirds (family=Nectariniidae) also known to feed on the nectar from the D.falcata flowers also adds to the list of pollinators to this mistletoe (Kunwar et al, 2005 and references therein). Phytochemistry: Results for the preliminary tests in phytochemical screening analyses using ethanolic extract of the whole plant reports the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, tannins phenolic compounds, flavonoids and triterpenes (Sahu et al, 2010). Chromatography of D.falcata fruits has recently added new members to the list of naturally occurring terpenes which has taxonomically been considered significant (Mallavadhani et al., 2006). Total phenolics in mistletoe have a comparatively higher concentration but it failed to correlate to any resistance by the host or its susceptibility to infection by the hemiparaste (Khanna et al,, 1968). Later a phenolic inhibitor of the enzyme a-glucan phosphorylase was reported ((Khanna et al,, 1971). A study by Ramchandra and coworkers (2005) indicated that an elevated antioxidant potential in the mistletoe is due to sequestration of phenolic compounds from the host plants. Their HPTLC data on samples from mistletoe hosted on Mangifera indica (Mango), reportedly contained mangiferin, a C-glucosyl xanthone synthesized by the host plant. The report raises query concerning further investigations for whether the transfer of phenolics to the hemi-parasite indicates a preliminary host mediated defense or a mode of host identification by the parasite or as a mechanism from within the parasite to bypass rejection from the host plant. In mature seed embryo 0.65 mg chlorophyll/g fresh wt; chlorophyll a : b ratio of 1.6 per mg chlorophyll has been evidenced. Moreover, in context to titre of enzymes for photorespiration, phosphoglycolate activity in the embryo has been recorded to be 16.7 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½mol substrate/min and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase activity 6.8 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½mol substrate/min. Similarly, NADH-linked glyoxylate reductase activity has been demonstrated in the embryo (0.09 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½mol substrate/min/g fresh wt) by Kachru, and Krishnan (1979). Chroamatography of the ethanolic extract followed by NMR and Mass spectrometry could isolate and identify Quercitin, a rhamnoside (Shihab et al, 2006). Hexokinase has been partially isolated and studied for its properties from D.falata leaves (Baijal and Sanwal, 1976). In a comparative evaluation of this parasitic plant grown on various host plants, Nair et al.10) reported the accumulation of kaempferol, quercetin, myrecitin, and their glycosides. Medicinal Properties: D.falcata possesses remarkable potentials as a medicinal plant evident from the wound healing, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, antinociceptive properties of its ethanolic extracts (Pattanayak and Sunita, 2008, Shihab et al, 2006). Medicinal properties of this hemiparasite may vary in effects respective to different hosts it establishes a relation with (Mallavadhani et al., 2006). The whole plant is used in indigenous system of medicine as cooling, bitter, astringent, aphrodisiac, narcotic and diuretic (Alekutty e al., 1993) and is useful in treating pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma, menstrual disorders, swelling wounds, ulcers, renal and vesical calculi and vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta (Anarthe et al., 20081; Anarthe et al, 2010; Sastry, 1952; Pattanayak et al., 2008 ). Also, the decoction of plant used by women as an anti-fertility agent has been evidenced to possess anticancer activity (Nadkarni, 1993). The leaf ethanolic extract significantly and dose dependently inhibits the acetic acid induced writhing in mice (Shihab et al, 2006) and has indicated a low level toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assays. Besides, a more recent work by Pattanayak and Mazumder (2010) shows significant tumor reduction in induced mammary carcinogenesis in Wistar female rats when fed with hydroalcoholic extracts of D. falcata. Ethno-medicinal aspects: Ethnomedical studies are generally characterized by a strong anthropological and/or biomedical approach and in this context the use of D.falcata as a traditioal remedy for most if not all the ailments has been well appraised. Perhaps, the variety of knowledge available has not yet been exploited full fledgedly due to the currently over-recommended chemial analogs that are predominant over market most of which have side-effects associated under frequent use. In vitro regeneration and gene introgression studies: It is known that long term caulogensis from the endosperm tissue exhibits a high degree of polyploidisation of its cells associated with abnormalities such as chromosome bridges and lagging chromosomes but mistletoe endosperms have exceptional stability in their chromosome number (Razdan, 2003). In the past, in vitro studies aiming towards investigating behavior of mature embryos have been reported in D.falcata (Johri and Bajaj, 1962). The effects of light, endosperm, endosperm extract, and position of the embryo on media have been studied on in vitro germination of D.falcata (Bajaj, 1968). Shoot induction has been successfully achieved in D.falcata (Bhojwani and Razdan, 1983). Shoot buds in Loranthaceae directly differentiate from the peripheral cells of the endosperm cultures though D.falcata may particularly require media supplemented with a combination of cytokinins and a low concentration of IAA or IBA. Among other cytokinins, 2-ip has been most effective and also addition of Casein hydrolysate (2000mg/l) has been necessarily recommended for shoot bud differentiation. For optimal shoot bud growth frequent subcultutres on fresh media is crucial. Caulogenesis from these shoot buds may be followed by differentiation into shoot and haustoria. The latter could be avoided by increased kinetin concentration and for such kinetin induced shoot bud differentiation, a low concentration of auxin (IAA or IBA) is necessary (Nag and Johri, 1971). Ready to use tissue culture strategies have been discussed by a review article by Pattanayak and Mazumder (2008). Advanced molecular level studies are surprisingly lacking for D.falcata with only single report where tests for amenability of this plant in gene introgression studies have been investigated via successful agrobacterium mediated transformation of its embryogenic cultures for GUS expression (Rohini et al, 2005). Diseases of D.falcata: Very little is known about diseases that victimize this hemiparasitc plant. The pathogen species that have been reported in association are generally known to commonly infect a wide range of plants off genera. There are realizations that propose that mistletoe specific pathogens are rare and develop endemism and be localized to favorably optimized areas where their growth requisites and nutritional demands are inline with the host mistletoe species and their host nutrient and sap flow dynamics. Fungal: The hemi-parasite itself is susceptible to diseases such as leaf blight caused by Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata which has been reported on D.falcata which seriously infects Teak (Tectona grandis) plantations (Ali and Florence, 1987) in Kerala, India. Epiparasitism Plant: A surprising evidence of hyper-parasitism has been reported in the Mohand Range Forest (Dehradun, India) where D.falcata itself receives haustoria from Scurrula cordifolia (another mistletoe), both hosted together by Ougeinia oojeinensis (fabaceae) (Pundir, 1979). Similaly, Viscum orientale (Viscaceae) has also been reported to grow on D.falcata (Saxena, 1971). In another instance Cuscuta reflexa (Convolvulaceae) has been shown to act as a rival to the leafy mistletoe (Nath and Indira, 1975). Viscum capitellatum. Sm has also been evidenced from Sri Lanka to be an obligate epiparasite for D.falcata (Calvin and Wilson, 2009) and symplastic continuity exists between their phloem (Glatzel and Balasubramaniam, 1987) which is an indicative of the aggressive epiparasitism depicted more vividly by the presence of graft-resembling Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½unionsÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½. Viscum loranthi Elmer, thus has been advocated to have potentials for biological control of Loranthaceae hemiparasites (Pundi r, 1981) damaging commercial timber crops. Well, other species such as D.glabrata has also been reported to be parasitized by Viscum articulatum (Robert L. Mathiasen, David C. Shaw, Daniel L. Nickrent, David M. Watson,2008 Plant Disease / Vol. 92 No. 7). On the whole, 88% of Viscaceae and 61% Loranthaceae epiparasitize Loranthaceae (Calvin and Wilson, 2009). Hyperparasitism in Other mistletoes in the same genus: Notothixos subaureus (Viscaceae), parasitic on Dendrophthoe glabrescens (Loranthaceae) on Eucalyptus (source: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/1876445) Insects: Recently, Cockerell Scale insects, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli Cooley (Diaspididae) have been reported to settle on the leaves, stems and haustoria of D.falcata parasitizing Senna siamea (unpublished communication). These scale insects are known to thrive on sap nutrients and their reproduction and hence their proliferation rate has depicted relation with the nitrogen status of the host. Well in this regard mistletoe particularly D.F indicates a favorable choice as their nutrient uptake seems more biased towards drawing more nitrogen rich species from the host sap. The host S.siamea, though is a non-nodulating leguminous tree specie but can produce more nitrogen than the nodulating relatives. Controlling the parasite: Backed by easy seed dispersal by fruit eating birds, widespread and ever increasing host range of Dendrophthoe falcata continues to pose heavy losses in economically valuable fruit trees and those with medicinal properties whether growing in forests, orchards or gardens (Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978). Healthy tree hosts can tolerate few branch attachments with mistletoes but a heavily infected host slowly moves towards its decline as the mistletoe feeds upon its nutrients and spreads on all its ariel parts (Aly, 2007). HostsÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ death is more probable when they become more prone to other forms of biotic ad abiotic stresses. Reports from 1930s evidence that until then no proper control and eradication methods were available rather the only alternative used was excising off the parasite (before seed production) completely from below the point of infection in the host and their immediate incineration (Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978). Mechanical pruning of the infected host branches with cuts at least one foot below the point of mistletoe attachment in order to completely remove embedded haustoria has also been suggested as a method of choice but severe heading (topping) which is often used to remove heavy tree infestations weakens the host tree structure. Instead, it is best to remove severely infested trees entirely because they are usually a source of mistletoe seeds. Another method employed when mechanical pruning gives up upon mistletoe infection uses painting the infected area using a pruning paint or spray and wrapping it with layers of opaque polyethylene cover so as to restrict light source required by this leafy mistletoe. In another method, use of ethephon (a growth regulator) in form of spray to completely wet leaves of mistletoe harboring dormant host trees is recommended (Aly, 2007). Regrowth of the parasite may be prevented by pruning it and painting the spot in the host branch (Koski et al., 2009). Lately, adopted method of control uses application of 50% diesel oil emulsion sprayed on mistletoe leaves. The said morbid effect of emulsion significantly increases the intra-molecular respiration rates in the leaves followed by a gradual decline in capacity of stomatal closure consequently leading to death of the hemiparasite (Singh and Sharma., 1970). Delias eucharis, a medium sized pierid butterfly (Common Jezebel) commonly occurs in South and South-East Asia (Bingham, 1907) and is particularly known to lay its eggs and feed on leaves of mistletoes (Roychoudhury, 2005) and has been suggested in its use to control the parasitic mistletoes (Sevastopulo, 1950, Mushtaque and Baloch 1979). Alternatively, resistance to D.falcata using herbicide (metribuzin) infusion of its host, Tectona grandis (Teak) has also been tested but is of limited help as the efficiency of parasite killing was not proportional to the amount of herbicide used which is required to estimate exact dosage and infusion time for multiple of infection on one host (Balasundaran and Ali, 1989). In one of the papers from the proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society conference, G.G. Hambali (1977) has discussed beside other uses the exploitaton of scolytid and cerambycid beetles in controlling Dendrophthoe spp. Several similar or other control alternatives have been suggested by Khan et al. (1987). Approaches as highlighted above towards control of parasitic weeds by traditional methods are limitedly effective and best control via herbicides and fumigants may be hazardous to Mother Nature (Jacobsohn 1994). Removal of mistletoe by hand is effective considerably under small degrees of infection but extensive infestation might render this approach as inevitably expensive (Aly, 2007) and cumbersome more particularly when the infestation spans large tree plantations or dense forests. Replacing the infected plantations with resistant trees has also been a method of choice. Though not reported yet specifically for D.falcata, resistance for broadleaf mistletoe (Phoradendron macrophyllum) was evidenced in some tree species viz., pear, Chinese pistachio, crapemyrtle, ginkgo, sycamore, and conifers such as redwood and cedar (Perry 1995). These few resistant species are of significance to the plant breeders but raising parasitic plant resistant crop genotypes have been very difficult and yet lack success. Use of high and low intensity fires has also been noted but is rather undesirable in plantations as wonÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½t result in complete cure but only subside heavy infestation from the mistletoes in stand without suppression of re-infestation (Carnegie et al, 2009). Chemical control of mistletoes has been extensively researched in Australia which points out the reasons for their limited routine practice in forests as these methods are labour intensive, cost-effective, variable or limited in results. Use of biological control strategies including mistletoe targeting fungi has also been evidenced (Carnegie et al, 2009). Recent efforts by S. Aly and his workgroup (at the Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Yaar Research Center, Israel) enlists successful biotechnological approaches which guarantee prospects towards achieving effective parasitic weed control and ensure environmental safety (Aly, 2007). Adoption of these tools within biotechnology viz, trait gene introgression, gene silencing, promoter technology etc accordingly towards generating transgenic host trees remain the only promising alternative to combat losses incurred from D.falcata infestations. Aspects of biodiversity: Management and control strategies whether mild or exhaustive and whether practiced on a low to high area of coverage should not overlook that mistletoes are considered a valuable component of biodiversity. They are seen as Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½a keystone resourceÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ of food and shelter for diverse population of vertebrates and invertebrates (Carnegie et al, 2009). Conclusions: (KEY: take up the previous issues in above topics and be general and also take examples from other species or genera about the same, for medicinal values and products again search for other existing natural resources. Parasitic plants and their origin Parasitic plants constitute to about 1% of the total angiosperms in nature. Studies explaining the science behind the evolutionary origin of the ariel habit in Loranthaceae have recently been initiated where primitive hypotheses are being investigated with use of phylogenetic tools and analyses (Wilson and Calvin, 2006). Phytochemistry: Though in a recent review by DCruz et al (2010) considerable reproductive toxicity that may cause upon consumption of extracts from the hemiparasite and other plant extracts had been advocated. The article also appeals for extensive research on neutralizing the toxicity of plant based products before they could be validated for their health benefits. Medicinal uses: Antioxidants are considered important for preventing human diseases but the synthetic antioxidants viz., butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) that have a restricted use as preservatives in oils and fatty foods to minimize their oxidation are considered carcinogenic (Andlauer and Furst, 1998) which can be altered by use of ethanolic and/or methanolic D.falcata extracts as
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Great Gatsby:Ã Imagery of ColorsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã F. Scott Fitzgerald used the imagery of colors in his masterpiece The Great Gatsby.Ã The colors are used very frequently as symbols, and the hues create atmosphere in different scenes of the book.Ã White is a clean and fresh color, but the author shows how it can be tainted as well.Ã Next, yellow illustrates the downfall of moral standards of the people of West Egg.Ã Lastly, green, the most dominant color in the book, symbolizes wealth and Gatsby's unattainable dream. To Gatsby, Daisy represents innocence and purity; however, Fitzgerald uses different shades of white to veil her corruption.Ã Daisy is solely described as "dressed in white", she powders her face white, and she mentions her "white girlhood".Ã The millionaire describes this perfect princess figure to be "high in a white palace the king's daughter, the golden girl."Ã On the other hand, Fitzgerald portrays the way of life in West Egg as a wretched place when "four solemn men dressed in suits are walking along the sidewalk with a stretcher on which lies a drunken woman in a white evening dress.Ã Her hand, which dangles over the side, sparkles cold with jewels.Ã Gravely the men turn it at a house - the wrong house.Ã But no one knows the woman's name, and no one cares." Yellow stands out as a symbol of corruption and decay.Ã Materialism has corrupted the citizens of East and West Egg because they center everything on money. When Gatsby entertains this wealthy class, the orchestra plays "yellow cocktail music".Ã Even Gatsby believes that he can win Daisy back with his money - thus he is described as wearing a "caramel-colored suit" when he lies about his past to Nick.Ã The most important symbol, however, is Gatsby's car.Ã The car becomes the main topic of conversation among the townspeople after it kills Myrtle and a witness specified this "death car" to be yellow. Fitzgerald used green most frequently to symbolize Gatsby's love for Daisy Buchanan.Ã Daisy rejected Gatsby because "rich girls don't marry poor boys", so her philosophy compelled him to become wealthy.Ã Gatsby described Daisy's voice as "full of money" and he acquired millions of green dollars in the hope that Daisy would love him again.Ã Also, Gatsby moved into his mansion so that he could live near the Buchanans, and at night the millionaire watches "a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been at the end of a dock.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Noverre is seeking to state here that the maitre de concert dance should non try to utilize force and coercion to accomplish his coveted result, and that he should more or less be present merely to offer words of advice and non to implement anything on the terpsichoreans. Similarly, if we transpose this into the context of dance instruction, a good dance pedagogue should non turn his or her pupils into some sort of machine-controlled automatons by take a firm standing that the pupils all simply follow and transcript him. This does non promote any sort of artistic and aesthetic sensitivenesss in the pupils, nor does it excite the scholars to develop their ain sense of look, passion and individuality in their ain dance. They therefore create pupils who are mere C transcripts of themselves who will non last nor travel far in the dance universe because they have non been taught to believe for themselves. In add-on, dance instruction should perservere to supply a acquisition environment t hat non merely offers encouragement and advice on how to better themselves and their dance, but one that will excite the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë creativeness and artistic virtue. Dance pedagogues should besides move as wise mans who are at that place to steer the pupils alternatively of smothering them by throwing them into an environment where the pupils learn under fright and by force. Based on the citations below, dance is an abstraction of world and it should be expressive. To develop a terpsichorean is to prepare an creative person who is technically adept, aesthetically sensitive, intelligent, and creatively expressive. How do you, as a dance pedagogue, develop the aesthetic sensitiveness, interpretative ability and originative expressivity of your dance pupils? As a dance pedagogue, the first measure for me towards developing aesthetic sensitiveness, interpretative ability and originative expressivity of my pupils would be to concentrate on 3 watercourses: prowess, aesthetics, and cultural grasp of dance. The pupils would hold to make, experiment, and ticker and the combination of these 3 actions would in bend lead to a greater grasp of and for dance as a signifier of art. I would desire my pupils to non merely dance, but besides create Ã¢â¬â as in, choreograph because it is through this procedure where they would develop a great sense of artistic virtue and esthesia. I would besides desire them to watch a great assortment of dance shows and non merely simply limit themselves to state concert dance, or pat. This would open their positions in the universe of dance and assist them to pull on many inspirations when they dance and create in category. Ultimately, I want to make pupils who are motivated to believe for themselves, and who are a ble to pull upon their ain personal cognition and experiences and link these to their dance. This I feel, would enable them to hone their interpretative and artistic accomplishments and go believing terpsichoreans with a great deepness of non merely intelligence, but proficient and artistic accomplishment. What in your thought, are the elements that need to be integrated to put up a meaningful acquisition context for your dance pupils? In my sentiment, to develop a really strong sense of kinaesthetic intelligence is needed to being with, because it is of import for the pupils to hold on the construct and be able to associate really closely both head and organic structure in their dance enterprises. This can be brought about by developing our focal point on the procedure in dance instruction whereby the 3 watercourses of artistic, aesthetic and cultural grasp of dance culminate to supply a meaningful acquisition context. In add-on, I feel it is of import that we include the component of easing the acquisition of dance through other academic subjects and life accomplishments. This in bend makes the whole experience of dance instruction double meaningful because it enables the pupils to pull upon their ain personal experiences and convey these into developing their ain alone individualities and believing in dance. Furthermore, it is besides of import non to bury to include the indispensable proficient facets of dance such as the find of beat, infinite, way, attempt, kineticss, locomotor, and motion motives and unite these with the non-locomotor facets of dance such as look, representation and public presentation to make a wholistic acquisition environment for the pupils. Furthermore, it is of import to incorporate cognition and cognitive intelligence together with bodily and kinaesthetic intelligence so that the pupils come to recognize that dance as a signifier of art is non merely about mere superficial proficient glare and aesthetic beauty and that there is far more to it than meets the oculus. How would you use the construct of incorporating reason and prowess to dance instruction? This is a really of import issue that should be addressed because there is a really all right line between being nonsubjective and excessively nonsubjective, or being subjective or excessively subjective. However, this is a line that we as dance pedagogues frequently need to step on because of the nature of dance as a signifier of art. We can non trust on ever the merchandise Ã¢â¬â by concentrating merely on proficient ability, we hence negate the elements of look and individuality in the public presentation of dance. However, if we rely excessively much on the procedure of learning dance and acquire so caught up with stimulating creativeness and look in the pupils, so we are besides contradicting the factor that dance is finally, a signifier of art that serves to showcase aesthetic glare and extended proficient capablenesss that audiences ever look for. Therefore, there needs to be an equilibrium that is applied between reason and prowess in learning whereby the pedagogue needs t o ever be cognizant of the balance between keeping and bettering the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë proficient abilities and yet at the same clip seek to foster their unconditioned sense of prowess to make an art that is aesthetically delighting. I would use this construct of incorporating reason and prowess in dance instruction by using the midway theoretical account of learning as proposed by Smith-Autard in her book Ã¢â¬ËThe Art of Dance in Education Ã¢â¬Ë . I find that this is a really appropriate theoretical account to turn to because it is a matrimony of the most of import elements from the procedure and merchandise theoretical accounts severally. It combines the opposing points from these theoretical accounts into a theoretical account of all rounded acquisition, which places equal accent on making, executing, sing and appreciating dance. We frequently teach how we were taught, what are the branchings of this booby trap for a beginning dance instructor? This is besides yet another issue that tend to impact many of us immature instructors and that needs to be addressed. The effects of learning how we ourselves were taught can be both positive and negative. The general position we tend to keep is that if we are or were being taught in a certain mode, so it must be the absolute and right manner in which we should learn our ain pupils. The gimmick lies in the fact that if we had good pedagogues who nurtured our passions and encouraged the development and cultivation of artistic, aesthetic, and cultural intelligence in dance, who married both proficient and public presentation facets of dance, so this method would be more or less harmless if we in bend decided to learn our pupils in this mode every bit good. However, if we had instructors who taught us without any respect whatsoever for artistic virtue and kinaesthetic esthesias, who, harmonizing to Rand in Reading 2, were monsters who created machine-controlled pupils, so this would be the incorrect manner to travel and the result would be batches of pupils who would non be able to widen their positions and believe for themselves, who would follow mindlessly and non see the absolute Ã¢â¬Ëjoyous spontaneousness Ã¢â¬Ë ( Noverre ) of the art of dancing. In add-on, if we do non seek or try to develop our ain methods of learning Ã¢â¬â by pulling upon all the positive and effectual methods which we have experienced throughout our old ages of dance and acquisition dance, there may be many loopholes in our instruction methods and the pupils in bend will non be able to acquire the most out of their dance instruction procedure. We, as dance pedagogues, have to and should bear in head that even learning dance is a signifier of art that we should near with much sensitiveness, attention, cognition, and daintiness in order to make the most meaningful acquisition environment for our pupils. An first-class dance pedagogue inspires. In order to actuate your ain dance pupils positively, it is of import you demand yourself to possess the same qualities as you demand of your pupils. What, in your sentiment, are these qualities? In my sentiment, these qualities should be expressiveness, creativeness, invention, being extremely perceptive to the infinite and people around oneself, holding a sense of unfastened mindedness so that we do non barricade our personal creative and inventive procedures, sensitiveness with respects to infinite, clip, beat, and way, esthesia with respect to the employment of logical thought, every bit good as artistic, aesthetic and cultural consciousness, careful use and application of technique and manner, every bit good as possessing a strong sense of individualism, good musicalness, spontaneousness, and most significantly, public presentation quality. Reading 2 Compare and remark on the position behind these two instruction attacks refering human nature and how one learns: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦to obtain conformity and subject from dance pupils by shouting at them, penalizing them for errors and haling them into accepted behaviours through bribing and calming Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦to cultivate self-denial and ownership through positive support, development of independent believing through logical thinking and, duty through larning about causality Ã¢â¬Ë In the reading, Rand introduces us to the modern doctrine of Naturalism and its metaphysical projection of how adult male should be and act. First, the two positions here are polar antonyms of each other and they represent basically what Rand negotiations about in the reading of the ideal and existent projection of adult male by the naturalists as monsters alternatively of heroes. The first position here so represents adult male as an machine-controlled monster who has no feelings nor respect whatsoever for others because he is reassured by the irrational philosophical strong belief that he can be pardoned or accounted for even by moving like that. In this instance, the Ã¢â¬Ëcultural bankruptcy Ã¢â¬Ë that Rand negotiations about is apparent in that Man has succumbed to his Ã¢â¬Ëtragic defect Ã¢â¬Ë and has chosen non to exert any sort of control over his sense of ground values. Hence in this instance, the pupils would endure from a really machine-controlled sort of acquisition and finally, the Ã¢â¬Ëjoyous spontaneousness Ã¢â¬Ë that should be present in Man Ã¢â¬Ës learning procedure and journey would be destroyed. However, in contrast in the 2nd position, we can see that this conforms more to the Romantic doctrine whereby adult male is presented as a hero, as being in entire control over his actions and being every bit good as being in ownership of a positive energy to make his highest potency and to hold the same respect for others. In bend, the acquisition procedure here would finally be really different from that in the first position. This could be representative of a successful instruction theoretical account, because the pupils are placed in a positive acquisition environment whereby their creativeness and spontaneousness will be stimulated because they are happy and encouraged, non to reference they will be an impulse to seek out artistic virtue alternatively of contradicting it in the acquisition procedure. Compare and remark on thoughts in dance aesthetics in ancient history, the Renaissance period, modern and modern-day times. What are the deductions for dance pedagogues as a effect of these altering thoughts about dance aesthetics? Dance aesthetics in ancient history, the Renaissance period and modern and modern-day times differed really greatly from each other. The biggest going would likely be that of the Renaissance period whereby the Romantics painted a really positive and epic image of adult male as a godlike entity whereas the naturalists during the modern and modern-day times regarded aesthetics as non being present but simply as a statistical presence. As a consequence of these altering thoughts about dance aesthetics, there are many deductions for dance pedagogues, one of which would be to maintain an unfastened head about how to educate and instill this sense of aesthetics into the terpsichoreans. We have to be really careful because there is a all right line between steering and fostering this sense of aesthetics as opposed to going forceful and didactic in our avidity to pull this out from the pupils. As it is, aesthetics in dance in the present is really extremely regarded as of import and indispen sable portion of our art so in bend it is of import that we as dance pedagogues manage to promote this in our pupils.